||Child Sexual Abuse ~ Statistics
- Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse in 2000:
87,900 children were victims of sexual abuse
Rate of sexual abuse by gender:
1.7 victims per 1,000 female children
0.4 victims per 1,000 male children.
Girls are sexually abused three times more often than boys.
Boys have greater risk of emotional neglect and serious injury than girls,
Rate of child abuse by race:
White = 51%
African American = 25%
Hispanic = 15%
American Indian/Alaska Natives = 2%
Asian/Pacific Islanders = 1%
Source: US Dept of Health and Human Services
Administration for Children & Families, Child Welfare Information Gateway (formerly Nat’l Clearinghouse on Child Abuse & Neglect), 2000
- Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS):
The July 2000 NIBRS report presents sexual assault in 4 categories:
Sexual assault with an object, and
67% of victims of sexual assault were juveniles (under age 18).
34% of sexual assault victims were under age 12.
1 of every 7 victims of sexual assault was under age 6.
40% of offenders who victimized children under age 6 were juveniles (under age 18).
Offenders who had victimized a child were on average 5 years older than the violent offenders who had committed their crimes against adults.
Nearly 25% of child victimizers were age 40 or older, but about 10% of the inmates with adult victims fell in that age range.
Convicted rape and sexual assault offenders serving time in State prisons report that two-thirds of their victims were under the age of 18, and 58% of those--or nearly 4 in 10 imprisoned violent sex offenders--said their victims were aged 12 or younger.
In 90% of the rapes of children less than 12 years old, the child knew the offender, according to police-recorded incident data.
Forty-four percent of rape victims were younger than 18 years old, according to data from police-recorded incidents of rape in three states. Two-thirds of state incarcerated violent sex offenders said their victims were younger than 18. An estimated 15 percent of imprisoned rapists said their victims were 12 years old or younger. An estimated 45 percent of those sentenced to prison for other sexual assaults (statutory rape, forcible sodomy and molestation) said their victims were 12 years old or younger.
Of the rapes and sexual assaults reported by victims in the BJS survey, 60 percent took place in the victim's home or at the home of a friend, relative or neighbor.
Addressing the mandate of the National Child Protection Act of 1993, which called for a study of offenders who committed crimes against children, this study found that:
1 in 5 violent State prisoners (about 65,000 offenders) reported a victim under age 18.
Older violent inmates were substantially more likely than younger inmates to have victimized a child; and
8 out of 10 prisoners convicted of sexual assault had committed their crime against a victim under age 18.
Of all prisoners convicted of rape or sexual assault, two-thirds victimized children.
Three out of four child victims were female.
Offenders typically preyed on children they knew, not strangers.
Eighty-eight percent had a prior relationship with their victims.
Prisoners convicted of attacking children were mostly male (97 percent).
Almost 70 were percent white.
Sixty-four percent were married or divorced.
Child victimizers were generally five years older than those who victimized adults.
About 22 percent of the child sex offenders reported having been sexually abused themselves during childhood; and
Three out of four prisoners who victimized a child reported the crime took place in their own home or in the victim's home.
According to the 1994 study of 11 states and Washington, D.C., half of the women who reported they had been raped during 1992 were under 18 years old, and 16 percent were younger than 12.
In separate study of three states in 1991, 96 percent of the female rape victims younger than 12 years old knew their attackers. Twenty percent were victimized by their fathers.
In a 1991 BJS survey of child rape state prisoners (the rape of girls under 12), 94 percent of the offenders said their victim was either a family member, friend, or acquaintance.
This result was almost identical to that found in law enforcement data from three states in 1991.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics ~ 1996-2006 data
Victims, offenders, and the criminal justice system.
- Study of 630 cases of alleged sexual abuse of children from 1985 through 1989: Using a subset of 116 confirmed cases, findings indicated that 79 percent of the children of the study initially denied abuse or were tentative in disclosing. Of those who did disclose, approximately three-quarters disclosed accidentally. Additionally, of those who did disclose, 22 percent eventually recanted their statements.
Source: Sorensen & Snow, 1991.
- In a twelve state study of approximately 9000 divorces cases, child sexual abuse allegations were made in less than 2% of contested divorces involving child custody.
Source: Association of Family Conciliation Courts, 1990.
- In addition to "sexual guilt," there are several other types of guilt associated with the abuse, which include feeling different from peers, harboring vengeful and angry feelings toward both parents, feeling responsible for the abuse, feeling guilty about reporting the abuse, and bringing disloyalty and disruption to the family. Any of these feelings of guilt could outweigh the decision of the victim to report, the result of which is the secret may remain intact and undisclosed.
Source: Courtois & Watts, 1982; Tsai & Wagner, l978.
- Reported cases of child sexual abuse reached epidemic proportions, with a reported 322 percent increase from 1980 to 1990.
Source: Sorensen & Snow, 1991.
- A study conducted at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati (Amy Arszman Daso and Robert Shapiro, M.D) indicates that child sexual abuse allegations should be taken seriously and found children's testimony more reliable than physical exams in cases of sexual abuse. The researchers reviewed the records of 31 pedophiles that confessed between 1994 and 1999. The 31 perpetrators confessed to a total of 101 acts of sexual abuse, some of which they committed multiple times. The perpetrators abused 47 children. The 45 old enough to provide a history described 111 acts of sexual abuse. "Physical exams are an unreliable indicator of sexual abuse," says Dr. Shapiro. "We're not saying that children never make things up, but the responsible reaction is to listen carefully to allegations of abuse so that abused children will be identified and false allegations recognized." (May 2000)
Source: Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, 2000.
- An average of 5.5 children per 10,000 enrolled in day care are sexually abused, an average of 8.9 children out of every 10,000 are abused in the home
Source: Finkelhor & Williams, 1988.
- In the adult retrospective study, 27 percent of the women and 16 percent of the men reported victimization. The median age for the occurrence of reported abuse was 9.9 for boys and 9.6 for girls. Victimization occurred before age eight for 22 percent of boys and for 23 percent of girls. Most of the abuse of both boys and girls was by offenders 10 or more years older than their victims. Girls were more likely than boys to disclose the abuse. Forty-two percent of the women and thirty-three percent of the men reported never having disclosed the experience to anyone.
Source: Finkelhor et al., 1990.
- "WHEN SEXUALLY abused boys are not treated, society must later deal with the resulting problems, including crime, suicide, drug use and more sexual abuse, said the study’s author, Dr. William C. Holmes of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine." .. "The earlier studies found that one-third of juvenile delinquents, 40 percent of sexual offenders and 76 percent of serial rapists report they were sexually abused as youngsters." .. "The suicide rate among sexually abused boys was 1˝ to 14 times higher, and reports of multiple substance abuse among sixth-grade boys who were molested was 12 to 40 times greater." .. "Holmes said a review of the studies leads him to believe 10 percent to 20 percent of all boys are sexually abused in some way. But widely varying definitions of sexual abuse in the studies and differences in who was being studied make it difficult to accurately gauge the prevalence of sexual abuse, he said.”
Source: MSNBC News, Dec 1998
- It is estimated that there are 60 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse in America today.
Source: Forward, 1993.
- Approximately 31% of women in prison state that they had been abused as children.
Source: United States Department of Justice, 1991.
- Approximately 95% of teenage prostitutes have been sexually abused.
Source: CCPCA, 1992.
- It is estimated that children with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more vulnerable to sexual abuse than their non-disabled peers.
Source: National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 1992.
- Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse are significantly more likely than their counterparts to engage in sexual behavior that puts them at risk for HIV infection, according to Dr. Larry K. Brown and associates, from Rhode Island Hospital, in Providence. Inconsistent condom use was three times more likely among youths who had been sexually abused than among the 55 who had not. A history of sexual abuse was also significantly associated with less impulse control and higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases. According to Dr. Brown, "These results suggest two things. Abused kids need adequate counseling around abuse issues. A lot of these kids keep re-experiencing the anxiety and trauma for years." The second issue, he said, is that "most therapy does not address current sexual behavior" and the anxieties that sexually abused adolescents experience.
Source: Larry K. Brown, M.D., et al, American Journal of Psychiatry 2000;157:1413-1415.
- Young girls who are forced to have sex are three times more likely to develop psychiatric disorders or abuse alcohol and drugs in adulthood, than girls who are not sexually abused. Sexual abuse was also more strongly linked with substance abuse than with psychiatric disorders. It was also suggested that sexual abuse might lead some girls to become sexually active at an earlier age and seek out older boyfriends who might, in turn, introduce them to drugs. Psychiatric disorders were from 2.6 to 3.3 times more common among women whose CSA included intercourse, and the risk of substance abuse was increased more than fourfold, according to the results. Family factors -- parental education, parenting behavior, family financial status, church attendance -- had little impact on the prevalence of psychiatric or substance abuse disorders among these women, the investigators observe. Similarly, parental psychopathology did not predict the association between CSA and later psychopathology.
Source: Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D., et al, Medical College of Virginia Commonwealth University, Archives of General Psychiatry 2000; 57:953-959.
- The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children, most of who do not report the offence.
Source: National Institute of Mental Health, 1988.
- About 60% of the male survivors sampled report at least one of their perpetrators to be female.
Source: Mendel, 1993.
- About 95% of victims know their perpetrators.
Source: CCPCA, 1992.
- It is estimated that approximately 71% of child sex offenders are under 35 and knew the victim at least casually. About 80% of these individuals fall within normal intelligence ranges; 59% gain sexual access to their victims through, seduction or enticement.
Source: Burgess & Groth, 1984.